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School of Pharmacy Division of Pharmacognosy

Dale G. Nagle

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Professor of Pharmacognosy
Research Professor in the Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Dr. Nagle received his undergraduate training at Portland State University and Oregon State University, where he earned his B.S. in Pharmacy in 1989. He earned his Ph.D. in Pharmacy in 1994 at the Oregon State University College of Pharmacy. His graduate research detailed the chemistry and biosynthesisof marine eicosanoids and antitumor agents. Dr. Nagle worked at the University of Guam Marine Laboratory (1995-1996). He then joined the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Texas - Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Dr. Nagle joined the Department of Pharmacognosy in 1997. He was appointed Professor of Pharmacognosy and Research Professor of RIPS in 2009.


Click here to see Research in Progress and Publications

  • Research in Progress


    Dr. Nagle’s research focuses on the discovery of new drugs.  His program combines natural products chemistry with cutting edge molecular mechanism-targeted bioassay techniques.  Dr. Nagle explores the biomedical potential of natural products as new sources of drug leads for the treatment of cancer.  He and Dr. Yu-Dong Zhou (Department of Pharmacognosy) have developed new molecular-based bioassays to investigate natural products for their potential to supplement existing chemotherapeutic agents by acting as promoters of tumor differentiation and cell death.  Dr. Nagle’s research examines new methods to rapidly detect the presence of potentially useful anticancer agents that target specific biochemical mechanisms involved in the development and spread of tumors.

    Dramatic progress during the past two decades has led to the identification of many genes involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, the molecular mechanisms underlying how these genes function, as well as the biochemical/physiological conditions required for tumor growth and metastatic spread.  These have revolutionized antitumor drug discovery from traditional cytotoxic methods to more mechanism-based molecular-targeted approaches.  Specifically, our research is now aimed at the discovery of new non-cytotoxic molecular-targeted antitumor agents.


    Insufficient vascularization produces poorly oxygenated hypoxic regions within rapidly growing solid tumor masses.  Alterations in the expression of specific genes in hypoxic tumor cells can promote the survival and metastatic spread of solid tumors.  The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is recognized as the primary mediator of the transcriptional response to cellular hypoxia.  HIF-1 regulates the expression of over 100 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress.  In cancer patients, HIF-1 activation is directly correlated with advanced disease stages and resistance to conventional therapeutic options.  HIF-1 has become an important molecular target for the discovery of new anticancer agents.

    HIF-1 is a heterodimer of the bHLH-PAS proteins HIF-1a and HIF-1b (a.k.a. ARNT).  Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1a protein is degraded rapidly and is stabilized under hypoxic conditions.  Meanwhile, HIF-1b protein is constitutively expressed.  Upon hypoxic induction and activation, HIF-1 binds to the hypoxia response element (HRE) present in the promoters of target genes and activates transcription.  Figure 1 summarizes the classical oxygen-dependent post-translational regulation of HIF-1protein.

    Hypoxic Regulation of hypoxia Inducible Factor-1

    Natural Products have recently become an important source of small molecule chemical entities that regulate various tumor-related molecular targets.  Examples of natural products and natural product-derived compounds that have been found to inhibit HIF-1 signaling are illustrated in Figure 2.

    Figure 2. Natural Products Regulate HIF-1 Expression and Transcriptional Activation under Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions

    Figure 2.  Natural Products Regulate HIF-1 Expression and Transcriptional Activation under Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Dr. Nagle and Dr. Zhou have developed high-throughput bioassays for inhibitors of hypoxia-induced gene expression, in order to discover novel natural products that selectively target hypoxic tumor cells within the solid tumor mass and at poorly vascularized metastatic sites.  This project uses a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the hypoxia response element recognized by HIF-1.  Over 22,600 crude extracts from plants, marine invertebrates, algae, and microorganisms have been evaluated in the primary T47D human breast tumor cell-based reporter assay for activities that inhibit HIF-1 activation.  These samples include 10,560 lipid extracts of marine invertebrates/algae and 7,656 lipid extracts of terrestrial plants from the NCI Open Repository, 3,170 crude extracts of terrestrial plants from the University of Mississippi - National Center for Natural Products Research (NCNPR) Repository, and over 2,000 extracts from the collective repositories of UM researchers Marc Slattery and Dale G. Nagle.

    This unique HIF-1 inhibitor discovery effort that combines the chemical diversity offered by natural products with effective bioassays has resulted in the identification of some of the most potent HIF-1 inhibitors known (Figure 3).  These include the marine sponge metabolites 7-hydroxyneolamellarin A, furospongolide, latrunculin A, algal compound laurenditerpenol, and plant secondary metabolites manassantin A, manassantin B, manassantin B1, 4-O-demethylmanassantin B, 4´-O-methylsaucerneol, emetine, klugine, 4’-methylalpinumisoflavone, and the cardiac glycosides ouabain and proscillaridin A.  Not only are these natural products potent inhibitors of HIF-1 activation in tumor cells, many of these agents appear to function through mechanisms that have not yet been recognized to regulate HIF-1 activity.

    Eamples of natural product based inhibitors

    Figure 3:  Examples of Natural Product-Based Inhibitors of HIF-1 Signaling Identified by Nagle/Zhou Group.



    Rather than focus on conventional pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, or traditional natural product chemistry, students in Dr. Nagle’s and Dr. Zhou’s research groups specialize in molecular-targeted drug discovery and in vitro molecular pharmacology of purified natural products from terrestrial and marine sources. Graduate training includes the development of cell-based bioassay systems for drug discovery, and the application of an array of methods in molecular and cell biology for characterizing the pharmacological properties of antitumor natural products. Special requirements for graduate students in Dr. Nagle’s and Dr. Zhou’s research groups include a degree in biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, or related biological sciences. Students with a background in chemistry will only be accepted, if the student also has significant biological training. Only highly self-motivated individuals will be considered.


  • Representative Publications

    Liu, Y.; Veena, C.K.; Morgan, J.B.; Mohammed, K.A.; Jekabsons, M.B.; Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D. "Methylalpinumisoflavone inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation by simultaneously targeting multiple mechanisms." Link J. Biol. Chem., 2009, 284, 5859-5868.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D. "Natural Products as Probes of Selected Targets in Tumor Cell Biology and Hypoxic Signaling" Chapter 2.23 in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry II, Mander, L.N. ed. in chief; Vol. 2: Structural Diversity II – Secondary Metabolite Sources, Evolution, and Selected Molecular Structures, Moore, B.S., Crews, P., Vol. eds., Elsevier, Oxford. 2010, In Press.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D. "Title: Marine Natural Products as Inhibitors of Hypoxic Signaling in Tumors" Link Phytochem. Rev., 2009, 8, 415-429..

    Liu, Y.; Liu, R.; Mao, S.-C.; Morgan, J.B.; Jekabsons, M.B.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Molecular-Targeted Antitumor Agents 19: Furospongolide from a Marine Lendenfeldia sp. Sponge Inhibits Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) Activation in Breast Tumor Cells." Link J. Nat. Prod., 2008, 71, 1854-1860.

    El Sayed, K.A.; Shallal, H.M.; Khanfar, M.; Muralidharan, A; Awate, B.; Youssef, D.T.A.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G.; Shah, G. "Latrunculin A and its 17-O-carbamates inhibit prostate tumor cell invasion and HIF-1 activation in breast tumor cells" Link J. Nat. Prod. 2008, 71, 396-402.

    Chittiboyina, A.G.; Gundluru, M.K.; Carvalho, P.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G.; Avery, M.A.  “Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of Laurenditerpenol: A HIF-1 Activation Inhibitor.” link J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 6299-6302.

    Dai, J.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Cytotoxic metabolites from an Indonesian sponge Lendenfeldia sp." J. Nat. Prod. 2007, 70, 1824–1826.

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Molecular-targeted antitumor agents 15: Neolamellarins from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in breast tumor cells" J. Nat. Prod. 2007, 70, 1741–1745.

    Dai, Jingqiu; Liu, Yang; Jia, Hong; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Benzochromenones from the marine crinoid Comantheria rotula inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) reporter activity and differentially suppress the growth of certain tumor cell lines" J. Nat. Prod. 2007, 70, 1462-1466.

    Dai, J.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Hypoxia-selective antitumor Agents: Norsesterterpene peroxides from the marine sponge Diacarnus levii preferentially suppress the growth of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions" J. Nat. Prod. 2007, 70, 130-133..

    Dai, J.; Fishback, J.A.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Sodwanone and yardenone triterpenes from a South African species of the marine sponge Axinella inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) Activation in both Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells" J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 1715-1720.

    *Nagle, D.G; Ferreira, D.; Zhou, Y.-D. "Molecules of Interest: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Chemical and Biomedical Perspectives" Phytochemistry 2006, 67, 1849-1855. (The #2 most accessed publication in the journal Phytochemistry for 2006.)

    *Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D. "Natural Product-Derived Small Molecule Activators of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1)"  Curr. Pharm. Design, 2006, 7, 355-369.

    Mora, F.D; Jones, D.K.; Desai, P.V.; Patny, A.; Avery, M.A.; Feller, D.R.; Smillie, T.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Bioassay for the identification of natural product-based activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma): The marine sponge metabolite psammaplin A activates PPAR gamma and induces apoptosis in human breast tumor cells" J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 547-552. (Graphical abstract featured in Nat. Prod. Rep. #50944).

    Arbiser, J.L.; Govindarajan, B.; Battle, T.; Lynch, R.; Frank, D.A.; Ushio-Fukai, M.; Perry, B.N.; Stern, D.F.; Bowden, G.T.; Liu, A.; Klein, E.; Kolodziejski, P.J.; Eissa, N.T.; Hossain, C.F.; Nagle, D.G. “Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar” J. Invest. Dermatol. 2006, 126, 1396-1402.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y-D. "Natural Product-Based Inhibitors of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1)" Curr. Drug Targ. 2006, 7, 355-369.

    Li., X.C.; Jacob, M.R.; Ding, Y.; Agarwal, A.K.; Smillie, T.J.; Khan, S.I.; Nagle, D.G.; Ferreira, D.; Clark, A.M. "Capisterones A and B, which enhance fluconazole activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the marine green alga Penicillus capitatus" J. Nat. Prod. 2006, 69, 542-546. (Graphical abstract featured in Nat. Prod. Rep. #50832).

    Arbiser, J.L.; Li, X.-C.; Hossain, C.F.; Nagle, D.G.; Smith, D.M.; Miller, P.; Govindarajan, B.; DiCarlo, J.; Landis-Piwowar, K.R.; Dou, Q.P. "Naturally occurring proteasome inhibitors from mate tea (Ilex paraguayensis) serve as models for topical proteasome inhibitors" J. Invest. Dermatol. 2005, 125, 207-212.

    Hossain, C.F.; Kim, Y.-P.; Baerson, S.R.; Zhang, L.; Bruick, R.K.; Mohammed, K.A.; Agarwal, A.K.; Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D. "Saururus cernuus Lignans - Potent Small Molecule Inhibitors of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1" Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 2005, 333, 1026-33.

    Zhou, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-P.; Mohammed, K.A.; Jones, D.K.; Muhammad, I.: Dunbar, D.C.; Nagle, D.G. "The Terpenoid Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids Emetine, Klugine, and Isocephaeline Inhibit the Activation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) in Breast Tumor Cells" J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68, 947-50.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Mora, F.D.; Mohammed, K.A.; Kim, Y.-P. "Mechanism Targeted Discovery of Antitumor Marine Natural Products" Curr. Med. Chem. 2004, 11, 1725-56.

    Zhou, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-P.; Li, X.-C.; Baerson, S.R.; Agarwal, A.K.; Hodges, T.W.; Ferreira, D.; Nagle, D.G. "Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation by (-)-epicatechin gallate: Potential adverse effects of cancer chemoprevention with high-dose green tea extracts" J. Nat. Prod. 2004, 67, 2063-9.

    Mohammed, K.A.; Hossain, C.F.; Zhang, L.; Bruick, R.K.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Laurenditerpenol, a new diterpene from the tropical marine alga Laurencia intricata potently inhibits HIF-1 mediated hypoxic signaling in breast tumor cells" J. Nat. Prod. 2004, 67, 2002-7. (Jack L. Beal Award winning manuscript - American Society of Pharmacognosy).

    Li, X.-C.; Ferreira, D.; Jacob, M.R.; Zhang, Q.; Khan, S.I.; ElSohly, H.N.; Nagle, D.G.; Smillie, T.J.; Khan, I.A.; Walker, L.A.; Clark, A.M. "Antifungal cyclopentenediones from Piper coruscans" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 6872-3.

    Hodges, T.W.; Hossain,C.F.; Kim, Y.-P. Zhou, Y.-D.; Nagle, D.G. "Molecular-Targeted Antitumor Agents: The Saururus cernuus dineolignans manassantin B and 4-O-demethylmanassantin B are potent inhibitors of hypoxia-activated HIF-1" J. Nat. Prod. 2004, 67, 767-71.

    Takamatsu, S.; Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H. "Secondary metabolites from marine cyanobacteria and algae inhibit LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated cell adhesion" Planta Medica 2004, 70, 127-31.

    Jacob, M.R.; Hossain, C.F.; Mohammed, K.A.; Smillie, T.J.; Clark, A.M., Walker, L.A.; Nagle, D.G. "Reversal of fluconazole resistance in multidrug efflux-resistant fungi by the Dysidea arenaria sponge sterol 9a,11a-epoxycholest-7-ene-3b,5a,6a,19-tetrol 6-acetate" J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 66, 1618-22.

    Agarwal, A.; Rogers, P.D.; Baerson, S. R.; Jacob, M.R.; Barker, K.S.; Cleary, J.D.; Walker, L.A.; Nagle, D.G.; Clark, A.M. "Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to polyene, pyrimidine, azole, and echinocandin antifungal agents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278, 34998-5015.

    Li, X.-C.; Jacob, M.R.; ElSohly, H.N.; Nagle, D.G.; Smillie, T.J.; Walker, L.A.; Clark, A.M. "Acetylenic Acids Inhibiting Azole-resistant Candida albicans from Pentagonia gigantifolia" J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 68, 1132-5.

    Takamatsu, S.; Hodges, T.W.; Gerwick, W.H.; Hamann, M.T.; Nagle, D.G. "Marine natural products as novel antioxidant prototypes" J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 66, 605-8.

    Hossain, C.F.; Jacob, M.R.; Clark, A.M.; Walker, L.A; Nagle, D.G. "Genipatriol, a new cycloartane triterpene from Genipa spruceana" J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 66, 398-400.

    Nagle, D.G.; Sultana, G.N.N.; Schrader, K.K.; Hossain, C.F.; Stanikunaite, R.; Hamann, M.T.; Rajbandari, I. "Secondary metabolites from plants and marine organisms as selective anti cyanobacterial agents" in Off-flavor in Aquaculture, ACS Symposium Series, A.M. Rimando; K.K. Schrader, eds, American Chemical Society, 2003, 179-94.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Slattery, M.S.; Clark, A.M. "Chemical ecology and natural products from wetlands: Emerging perspectives" in Sustainability of Wetlands and Water Resources: Achieving Sustainable Systems in the 21st Century, M.M. Holland; E. Blood; L. Shaffer, eds, Island Press, 2003, 157-69.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Wedge, D.E. "Antifungal properties of cyanobacteria and algae: ecological and agricultural implications" in Chemical Ecology of Plants: Allelopathy in Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems, A. Mallik; Inderjit, eds, Birkhauser-Verlag AG, Switzerland, 2002, 7-32.

    *Nagle, D.G.; Inderjit "The chemistry and chemical ecology of biologically active cyanobacterial metabolites" in Chemical Ecology of Plants: Allelopathy in Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems, A. Mallik; Inderjit, eds, Birkhauser-Verlag AG, Switzerland, 2002, 33-56.

    *Schrader, K.K.; Nagle, D.G.; Wedge, D.E. "Algal and cyanobacterial metabolites as agents for pest management" in Advances in Microbial Toxin Research and its Biotechnological Exploitation, R.K. Upadhyay ed., Kluwer Academic Press, London, 2002, 171-95.

    Rajbhandari, I.; Takamatsu, S.; Nagle, D.G. "A new dehydrogeranylgeraniol antioxidant from Saururus cernuus that inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-catalyzed oxidation within HL-60 cells" J. Nat. Prod. 2001, 63, 693-5.

    Nagle, D.G.; Zhou, Y.-D.; Park, P.U.; Paul, V.J.; Rajbhandari, I.; Duncan, C.J.G.; Pasco, D.S. "A new indanone from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula that inhibits hypoxia-induced activation of the VEGF promoter in Hep3B cells" J. Nat. Prod. 2000, 63, 1431-3.

    Wedge, D.E.; Nagle, D.G. "A new 2D-TLC bioautography method for the discovery of novel antifungal agents to control plant pathogens" J. Nat. Prod. 2000, 63, 1050-4.

    Nagle, D.G.; Paul, V.J. "Production of secondary metabolites by filamentous tropical marine cyanobacteria: ecological functions of the compounds" J. Phycol. 1999, 35, Suppl. 607, 1412-21.

    Harrigan, G.G.; Luesch, H.; Yoshida, W.; Moore, R.E.; Nagle, D.G.; Paul, V.J. "Symplostatin 2: A dolastatin 13 analogue from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca hydnoides" J. Nat. Prod. 1999, 62, 655-8.

    Harrigan, G.G.; Luesch, H.; Yoshida, W.; Moore, R.E.; Nagle, D.G.; Biggs, J.; Park, P.U.; Paul, V.J. "Tomonoic acids: Novel metabolites from a cyanobacterial assemblage of Lyngbya majuscula and Schizothrix calcicola" J. Nat. Prod. 1999, 62, 464-7.

    Harrigan, G.G.; Yoshida, W.; Moore, R.E.; Nagle, D.G.; Park, P.U.; Biggs, J.; Paul, V.J.; Mooberry, S.L.; Corbett, T.H.; Valeriote, F.A. "Isolation, structure determination, and biological activity of dolastatin 12 and lyngbyastatin 1 from Lyngbya majuscula/Schizothrix calcicola cyanobacterial assemblages." J. Nat. Prod. 1998, 61, 1221-5.

    Harrigan, G.G.; Luesch, H.; Yoshida, W.Y.; Moore, R.E.; Nagle, D.G.; Paul, V.J.; Mooberry, S.L.; Corbett, T.H.; Valeriote, F.A. "Symplostatin 1: A dolastatin 10 analog from the marine cyanobacterium, Symploca hydnoides" J. Nat. Prod. 1998, 61, 1075-7.

    Nagle, D.G.; Camacho, F.T.; Paul, V.J. "Dietary preferences of the opisthobranch mollusc Stylocheilus longicauda for secondary metabolites produced by the tropical cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" Mar. Biol. 1998, 132, 267-73.

    Nagle, D.G.; Paul, V.J. "Chemical defense of a marine cyanobacterial bloom" J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 1998, 225, 29-38.

    Verdier-Pinard, P.; Lai, J.-Y.; Yoo, H.-D.; Yu, J.; Marquez, B.; Nagle, D.G.; Nambu, M.; White, J.D.; Falck, J.R., Gerwick, W.H.; Day, B.W.; Hamel, E. "Structure-activity analysis of the interaction of curacin A, the potent colchicine site antimitotic agent, with tubulin and effects of analogs on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells" Mol. Pharmcol. 1998, 53, 62-76.

    Thacker, R.W.; Nagle, D.G.; Paul, V.J. "Effects of repeated exposures to marine cyanobacterial secondary metabolites on feeding by juvenile rabbitfish and parrotfish" Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1997, 147, 21-9.

    Nagle, D.G.; Park. P.U.; Paul, V.J. "Pitiamide, a new chlorinated lipid from a mixed marine cyanobacterial assemblage" Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 6969-72.

    Nagle, D.G.; Paul, V.J.; M.A. Roberts "Ypaoamide, a new broadly acting antifeedent metabolite from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 6263-6.

    Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H. "Nakienones A-C and nakitriol, new cytotoxic cyclic C11 metabolites from an Okinawan microalgal (Synechocystis sp.) overgrowth of coral" Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 849-52.

    Rorrer, G.L.; Modrell, J.; Yoo, H.-D.; Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H. "Bioreactor seaweed cell culture for biomedicinal production" J. Appl. Phycol. 1995, 7, 187-98.

    Hamel, E.; Blokhin, A.V.; Nagle, D.G.; Yoo, H.-D.; Gerwick, W.H. "Limitations in the use of tubulin polymerization assays as a screen for the identification of new antimitotic agents: the potent marine natural product curacin A as an example" Drug Devel. Res. 1995, 34, 110-20.

    Orjala, J.; Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H. "Malyngamide H, an ichthyotoxic amide possessing a new carbon skeleton from the Caribbean cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" J. Nat. Prod. 1995, 58, 764-8.

    Orjala, J.; Nagle, D.G.; Hsu, V.L.; Gerwick, W.H. "Antillatoxin: An exceptionally ichthyotoxic cyclic lipopeptide from the tropical cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 8281-2.

    Blokhin, A.V.; Yoo, H.-D.; Geralds, R.S; Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H.; Hamel, E. "Characterization of the interaction of the marine cyanobacterial natural product curacin A with the colchicine site of tubulin and initial structure-activity studies with analogs" Mol. Pharmacol. 1995, 48, 523-31.

    Nagle, D.G.; Geralds, R.S.; Yoo, H.-D.; Gerwick, W.H.; Kim, T.-S.; Nambu, M.; White, J.D. "Absolute configuration of curacin A, a novel antimitotic agent from the tropical marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 1189-92.

    Nagle, D.G. "Novel oxylipins and other bioactive metabolites from marine algae (antitumor agents, curacin A" Diss. Abstr. Int. B. 1995, 56, 192.

    Gerwick, W.H.; Proteau, P.J.; Nagle, D.G.; Hamel, E.; Blokhin, A.; Slate, D.L. "Structure of curacin A, a novel antimitotic, antiproliferative and brine shrimp toxic natural product from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" J. Org. Chem. 1994, 59, 1243-5.

    Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H. "Structure and stereochemistry of constanolactones A-G, lactonized cyclopropyl oxylipins from the marine red alga Constantinea simplex" J. Org. Chem. 1994, 59, 7227-37.

    *Gerwick, W.H.; Proteau, P.J.; Nagle, D.G. "Oxylipins from Marine Invertebrates" in Topics in Current Chemistry, Vol. 167, P.J. Scheuer, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993, 117-80.

    *Gerwick, W.H.; Proteau, P.J.; Nagle, D.G.; Wise, M.L.; Jiang, Z.D.; Bernart, M.W.; Hamberg, M. "Biologically active oxylipins from seaweeds" Hydrobiologia 1993, 260/261, 653-65.

    *Gerwick, W.H.; Bernart, M.W.; Jiang, Z.D.; Moghaddam, M.F.; Nagle, D.G.; Proteau, P.J.; Wise, M.L.; Hamberg, M. "Patterns of oxylipin metabolism in marine organisms" Vol. I, Dev. Indust. Microbiol. 1993, 369-78.

    Nagle, D.G.; McClatchey, W.C.; Gerwick, W.H. "New glycosphingolipids from the marine sponge Halichondria panicea " J. Nat. Prod. 1992, 55, 1013-7.

    *Gerwick, W.H.; Bernart, M.W.; Moghaddam, M.F.; Jiang, Z.D.; Solem, M.L.; Nagle, D.G. "Eicosanoids from the Rhodophyta: a new metabolism in the alga" Hydrobiologia 1990, 204/205, 621-8.

    Nagle, D.G.; Gerwick, W.H. "Constanolactones A and B, novel cyclopropyl hydroxy eicosanoids from the temperate red alga Constantinea simplex" Tetrahedron Lett. 1990, 31, 2995 8.